A
- Advertising Agenciess
- Architects


B
- Banks


C
- Car Dealers
- Car Rental
- Casinos
- Commerce
- Consulting
- Cosmetology
- Craft


D
- Data Processing &
Computer Systems
- Decoration &
Furnishing


E
- Editing
- Elementary Schools
- Engineering &
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- Environment / Waste
Management Services
- Express Delivery


F
- Fashion
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- Furnished Apartments


H
- Health / Beauty
- Higher & Vocational
Training
- Home Appliances
- Hotels 3
- Hotels 4(A)
- Hotels 4(B)
- Hotels 5
- Hotel & Restaurant
Amenities


I
- Industry
- Insurance
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Decoration
- Internet


J
- Jewelleries


L
- Lighting
- Luxury


M
- Media
- Music


O
- Office Equipment /
Electronics
- Oriental Carpets
- Outside Decoration


P
- Printing
- Promotional Materials


R
- Real Estate
- Recruitment
- Restaurants


S
- Sanitary Wares
- Security
- Services
- Sweets


T
- Taxi
- Telecommunication &
Mobile Phones
- Transport
- Travel Agencies
- Technical Studies


W
- Watches
- Water Treatment





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The Information and Communications Technology Industry in Lebanon - Results of the 2004 ICT - August 2004
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The Information and Communications Technology Industry in Lebanon - Results of the 2004 ICT
Capabilities Survey
May 2004

Prepared by SRI International at the request of the Professional Computer Association of Lebanon


FOREWORD - About The Survey

In March 2004, SRI International conducted a comprehensive ICT Capabilities survey to determine the core capabilities, comparative advantages, prospects for and challenges to the growth of the ICT sector in Lebanon. This report presents the key findings of the survey– the first comprehensive ICT industry survey ever conducted in Lebanon. A number of implications can be drawn from the findings of the survey. However, the scope of this report is limited to presenting the aggregate response and industry estimates rather than drawing implications for any strategic change. All individual responses to this survey have been kept confidential by SRI International. The report presents data in the aggregate and no single company can be identified directly or indirectly through these results. SRI International is an independent, non-profit, research-based consulting organization with world-wide operation and headquarters in Menlo Park, California. This survey was conducted by SRI International’s Center for Science, Technology, and Economic Development (CSTED).

Acknowledgements

SRI International wishes to thank the United States Agency for International Development mission in Lebanon (USAID/Lebanon) for funding this survey as part of a larger, multiyear, economic development initiative –“Expanding Economic Opportunities in Lebanon.” For their technical suggestions and useful insights, SRI thanks the Survey Research team of the Professional Computer Association (PCA) of Lebanon and the six companies that took the sample survey during the questionnaire design phase. Finally, SRI sincerely thanks all the survey participants for their time and the valuable information provided through their responses.
 
 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

SRI International is pleased to present the results of the 2004 ICT Capabilities Survey conducted in Lebanon. The aggregate response of the participating firms points to the emergence of the information and communications technology (ICT) industry as a significant, vibrant and productive industry sector in Lebanon. While there are many positive indicators of development of a robust and entrepreneurial industry, the survey also finds a few areas where attention is needed to enable the sector to attain regional leadership.

Size and Growth Performance

- The 146 participating firms reported a total of approximately $256 million in 2003 sales. Based on this collective sales figure, the size of the Lebanese ICT industry is estimated to be in the range of $360 - $400 million in terms of total sales.

- With some degree of approximation, the responding firms were estimated to employ a little below 3,000 people. Based on this figure, the ICT industry is estimated to have a total employment between 6,500 and 6,750.

- The Lebanese ICT industry recorded an impressive annual growth rate of nearly 12.5 percent over the last two years. This growth occurred in an environment of stagnation for the global ICT industry.

- Lebanese software firms grew at a rate of 22.9 percent whereas the pure hardware players grew at 7.7 percent per annum. Firms with a mixed business focus on software and hardware grew at 10.9 percent per annum.

- Small firms, irrespective of their software or hardware focus, experienced the fastest rate of growth, at 24.5 percent per annum, followed by the medium-sized firms at 19.1 percent per annum and the large firms at 11.5 percent per annum.

Exports and Market Focus

- Over half of the responding firms reported that at least 10 percent of their sales resulted from activities outside Lebanon. Almost a quarter of the responding software firms were export-focused, with over 75 percent of their revenue coming from outside of Lebanon.

- The Gulf Region stands out as the most important market for Lebanese ICT firms. Countries in the Middle East are a close second in terms of offering export opportunities to the ICT industry in Lebanon.

- Among the non-Arabic speaking markets, Lebanese firms reported Europe as the leading source of export leads, followed by the Americas and Asia. France was the most frequently cited export destination in the non-Arabic market.

- In terms of domain competency, Lebanese ICT firms have strong presence in the banking sector. Retail, education, distribution and general trade sectors emerged as other important business domains for Lebanese ICT companies.

- Client referrals and IT trade shows are reported to be the most effective ways of capturing new business from the suppliers’ point of view. Termium is the most popular trade show, followed by GITEX Dubai and GITEX Riyadh in the Middle Eastern market. Industry Foundations, Capabilities and Competitiveness

- Local entrepreneurial capital and assistance from banks in terms of loans and kafalat are reported to be the primary mode of raising capital for ICT firms.

- ICT firms are increasingly aware of the importance of quality of goods and services for competitive success, domestically and in exports markets. Yet, there is a relatively low level of resource commitment on quality certification and productivity enhancement efforts.

- Nearly two-thirds of total employees were technical staff, indicating a higher demand for skilled personnel in the ICT sector compared to other industrial sectors. The large ICT firms were the major employers.

- A clear majority of software firms compete on their ability to customize software to client needs, high quality, and after sales service rather than on low prices. On the other hand, low prices and high quality are still the primary factor for competitive success in the hardware sector.

- Lack of information on export markets, policies and procedures stand out to be the most important barriers to growth. On the other hand, the availability of workers with the requisite technical skills is reported to be the least important concern in the industry at this point.

 
INTRODUCTION

In March 2004, SRI International conducted the first-ever comprehensive ICT Capabilities Survey to determine the core capabilities, competitive advantages, prospects for and challenges to growth of the ICT sector in Lebanon. The purpose of this survey was to develop key indicators relating to the industry’s performance and also to identify advantages and challenges so as to inform policy-making and industry development initiatives.

Survey Design

A comprehensive list of ICT companies operating in Lebanon was prepared by pooling company data from member lists of industry associations and business directories such as the 5 Index, the Kompass Directory and Lebanon Yellow Pages.1 The final list prepared after clean up of duplicates and revalidation of the firms’ ICT activities contained 600 companies. Questionnaires were sent to all 600 companies which, in effect, closely represent Lebanon’s entire ICT sector.

Response Rate

Complete responses were received from 146 companies, marking a response rate of nearly 25 percent.2 Companies offering software sales, design and development comprised above 38 percent of respondents while those engaged in hardware sales, deployment and maintenance comprised above 25 percent. More than 29 percent of firms reported a mixedbusiness focus, with a significant proportion of their sales arising from software as well as hardware sub-sectors. The rest of the respondents, about seven percent of the total, reported IT-enabled services as their primary business. IT-enabled services include business process outsourcing, such as back-office, call centers and data processing, Internet Service Providers, IT education, etc.

Respondents reported a wide range of products and service offerings, annual revenues and employment, indicating a good mix of large, mature firms and small and medium-sized enterprises in Lebanon’s ICT industry.

In order to gain a better understanding of the various features of these firms and the distinctions in their behavior with regard to market orientation, perception of growth opportunities and challenges, respondents were grouped into three categories: small firms with annual sales of less than $100,000, medium-sized firms with sales between $100,000 and one million dollars, and large firms with over a million dollars in annual sales in 2003. Defined this way, the medium-sized firms formed the majority (over 51 percent) of respondents, whereas the small and large firms comprised nearly 22 and 26 percent respectively. The following table lists the exact distribution of respondents by size and by primary ICT activity:

Distribution of ICT Capabilities Survey Respondents
By Size
Size Number of firms Percentage of
Total
Small 33 22.6
Medium 75 51.4
Large 38 26.0
Total 146 100.0
 
By Sub-sector
Sub-sector Number of firms Percentage of
Total
Software 56 38.4
Hardware 37 25.3
Both Software and Hardware 43 29.5
Other IT-enabled Services 10 68
Total 146 100
 
KEY FINDINGS

The responses of the participating firms point to the emergence of ICT as a significant, vibrant and productive industry sector in Lebanon.

Notwithstanding the recent downturn of the high-technology sector worldwide, the Lebanese ICT industry recorded impressive annual growth rates over the last two years, expanded products and service offerings and increased their exposure to new markets. The respondents also reported a few challenges to the growth of the industry and the actions undertaken to stay competitive. This section highlights the sector’s achievements and the various facets of industry dynamics reported by ICT companies.

Size and Growth Performance

Measuring industry performance by the response aggregates, the Lebanese ICT industry grew at 13 percent per annum over the last two years. While at an industry level, this puts Lebanon in the “high-growth” band among its peers, wide variation in growth is observed among individual ICT firms within Lebanon. The 146 respondents collectively reported approximately $256 million in revenue in 2003.

The 33 small firms that participated in this survey accounted for 22 percent of all respondents, but when combined, generated less than one percent of total sales reported. The medium-sized firms, comprising over half of all respondents, contributed nearly 13 percent of total revenues reported. The large firms, while representing only a quarter of the ICT industry in number, had a dominant share of the industry turnover. The 38 large ICT firms participating in the survey contributed over 86 percent of total sales by respondents.


Small ICT firms reported average annual growth of 25 percent – the highest annual growth rate in the industry. The medium-sized firms recorded an average growth rate of 19 percent. The large firms reported average annual growth of 12 percent, marginally below the industry average of 13 percent per annum. While a majority of Lebanese ICT firms have done very well in this challenging period, a small group of firms comprising a little over five percent of all respondents reported declining sales over the last two years.


A clear distinction in growth patterns was also observed between subsectors of the ICT industry. In terms of the average annual growth rate, the software sector was positioned far ahead of the hardware sector and also ahead of the firms engaged in both software and hardware segments. The hardware companies reported average annual growth of 8 percent whereas their software peers, notably smaller in size, reported growth of nearly 23 percent per annum. A clear majority of ICT firms, comprising over 76 percent of all respondents, achieved a positive return on sales over the last two years. In fact, a sizeable number of companies - over 37 percent – reported pre-tax return on sales of 15 percent or above. A greater proportion of mediumsized firms reported higher profitability as compared to the small and large firms.

 
It was the small firms that formed a significant proportion (45 percent) of firms not generating positive return on sales. Overall, these figures indicate that the industry in general is sustaining strong financial health in a competitive market. At the same time, for the entire industry to be a regional leader in ICT, firms, especially the small firms, need to explore opportunities for fiscal control and enhancement of productivity.

Exports

Exports play a major role in the growth of Lebanese ICT firms. A vast majority of Lebanese ICT firms engaged in exports over the last two years and are continuously seeking to develop business leads outside Lebanon. Over half of the responding firms reported that at least 10 percent of their sales resulted from activities outside Lebanon. The survey responses also revealed that at least 15 percent of Lebanese ICT firms were “export focused” with over three-quarters of their sales coming from business outside Lebanon.


Within the ICT industry, extreme variation was observed among the subsectors. Software companies were more active in the exports market than their hardware counterparts and their peers, who had mixed business focus in software and hardware. Almost three-quarters of the software firms had at least 10 percent of sales from exports and a quarter of them were export-focused. On the other hand, only about one-third of ICT hardware companies and half of the mixed-focus companies had at least 10 percent of sales from exports. The ICT industry in Lebanon also exhibits an interesting pattern in the export behavior of firms of various sizes. Typically in traditional industries, large, mature firms exhibit a higher degree of correlation between their share of exports and total revenues. However, in the case of high-technology industries, exports can be the key driver of growth even for small firms. Such is the case with the export-focused computer hardware industry in Taiwan and software exporter India, where even small firms have attained significant exposure to the export market. The small and medium-sized enterprises in Lebanon’s ICT sector reported a degree of exposure to export markets comparable to that of larger firms.


As indicated in the chart, a marginally higher percentage of large firms retained a domestic market focus3 compared to the small and mediumsized firms. On the other hand, the percentage of small firms with an export-focused market orientation matched that of the large firms.

In order to understand the geographic markets in which the Lebanese ICT firms are increasingly active, the survey also asked the participants to report the number of business leads coming from outside Lebanon and to identify the top five countries from where they had received those leads. In response to these questions, 65 percent of the respondents named at least one country as a source of their new business leads and about 40 percent of the respondents said that they had made at least one overseas contact that led to a business deal.

Based on the 95 firms that provided at least one country as a source of export leads in the last two years, the Gulf Region stands out as the most important market for Lebanese ICT firms.

Nearly half of these 95 firms received export leads from Gulf countries. Countries in the Middle East are a close second in terms of offering export opportunities to the ICT industry in Lebanon. Lebanese firms are also active players in Arabic speaking countries in northern Africa.


Among the non-Arabic speaking markets, the Lebanese firms reported Europe as the leading source of export leads, followed by the Americas and Asia. France was the most frequently cited source of exports in the non-Arabic market.

Core Capabilities

Technology industries in developing economies often develop domain expertise in certain business segments based upon the strengths and maturity of those sectors in the domestic market, and their degree and quality of interaction with local technology providers. These domain competencies not only serve as a major force of traction for the technology providers, but also allow technology deepening in related sectors and facilitate growth of both the technology sector and other industries that use these technologies.


The ICT capabilities survey asked the respondents to identify the core business domains or market segments their firm supports. The banking sector emerged as the strongest domain followed by retail, education, distribution and general trade sectors. These five domains were where Lebanese ICT firms had most of their business concentration and consequently developed much of their competencies.

While a clear majority of firms sell and service branded software and hardware products, a number of them are engaged in the development and maintenance of those products and offer consulting services. For example, in the hardware sub-sector, only one-fifth of the firms that sold and serviced hardware products reported hardware design activities. However, over 70 percent of the hardware firms were engaged in some form of hardware assembly. In the software sub-sector, the majority of firms reported software programming as one of the core capabilities of their firm. Software code testing, system integration and software design followed in this ranking of firms’ core capabilities, with declining importance.

In software as well as hardware sub-sectors, fewer firms reported execution of turnkey projects as their core capability. In this regard, hardware firms performed better over their software peers indicating a higher relative level of maturity of Lebanese hardware firms.

Market Access and Business Development

The respondents reported a range of instruments used to generate business leads from potential clients. These instruments range from traditional door-to-door marketing and advertisements to email campaigns, trade shows and client referrals. The most frequently cited way for firms to generate new business leads was through referrals from existing clients. A clear majority of firms – 119 out of 146 – reported that client referrals have opened further business opportunities for them in the last two years. Referrals and repeat businesses are indicators of client satisfaction and a key ingredient to future success. From that perspective, Lebanese ICT firms are certainly performing well and meeting or exceeding client expectations. However, the importance of referrals in new business development also suggests an even stronger need for firms to enhance the quality of their products and services, and to meet project delivery timelines and budgets.


It is important for any export-oriented industry to market its core strengths and capabilities to potential buyers, and tradeshows serve as an effective place for such activities. Following client initiated contacts, participation in trade shows emerged as the second most important way of generating business leads. Nearly 47 percent of all respondents had participated in some tradeshow that helped them generate business opportunities in the last two years.

Among all the tradeshows that Lebanese ICT firms attended in the last two years, Termium Lebanon was the most popular tradeshow. Almost 41 percent of respondents said they had participated in Termium and an additional 16 percent are planning to participate in the coming years. The second most popular tradeshow was GITEX.

As an important gateway to the Middle Eastern markets, GITEX Dubai and GITEX Riyadh collectively attracted 35 of the responding ICT firms. In addition, 40 more respondents revealed their plans to attend GITEX in the future. While SHAAM Damascus was the next most popular tradeshow for Lebanese ICT firms to showcase their products and services, SETI Paris and CEBIT Germany came out to be two important destinations in terms of expanding access to the European markets. The following chart captures the preferences of respondents toward regional tradeshows targeted toward the ICT industry:


Apart from tradeshows, ICT firms are increasing their web presence, using the Internet to disseminate information about themselves and their product and service offerings. A significant number of respondents (106 out of 146 respondents) had a website, and almost all of the rest are planning to build their websites soon. Although the sophistication of the websites was relatively low, as indicated by the lower proportion of companies using the websites to link to the customer, or to offer customer service or perform transactions, most respondents use their websites to disseminate detailed information about the firm, their products and services and their capabilities.

Ownership and Capitalization

Nearly 59 percent of responding ICT firms are privately held, with much of their capital needs met with personal financial resources. This response clearly indicates the dominance of local entrepreneurial capital in the development of the ICT sector in Lebanon. Financial assistance from banks in the form of kafalat or other loans was the second major source of capita. While 30 percent of all respondents had received some form of bank loans, nearly 7 percent received assistance through kafalat.

Over four percent of respondents had formed joint ventures with overseas firms and 4 percent had received venture capital from investors outside Lebanon. The following chart presents the distribution of responding ICT firms based on various forms of ownership and capital structure.


Quality Orientation

Quality of products and services is increasingly a key success factor in the expansion of market share in a competitive, global economy. The relevance of a standard certification, such as the ISO 9000 certification or the SEI CMM certification for software improvement, for international markets cannot be overstated. Lebanese ICT firms are conscious of the importance of quality certification and have, to certain degree, allocated resources to quality improvement of their products and processes.

For example, approximately 70 percent of respondents reported having designated specific employees for quality improvement related activities to ensure production and delivery standards are met. However, there was substantial variation in the level of resource commitment among firms in terms of number of employees and amount of funds allocated to quality related tasks. Despite the widespread awareness of the importance of quality for business growth, ample opportunity for quality improvement exists in the ICT sector. For example, with regard to ISO 9000 certification, only eight of the 146 respondents reported having completed the certification process. The chart shows the status of respondents with regard to quality certification.


Although quality certification is taking off from a relatively low starting point, awareness of quality and productivity issues is leading Lebanese ICT firms to participate in a number of seminars/workshops offered by expert consultants. Just over 42 percent of the respondents indicated that they had participated in quality/productivity improvement efforts. While a majority of these firms had engaged local experts or consultants, a little less than one-third reported that experts engaged by their firms were from outside of Lebanon.

Human Resources With some degree of approximation, the responding firms were estimated to employ a little below 3,000 people. Nearly two-thirds of total employees were technical staff, indicating a higher demand for skilled personnel in the ICT sector compared to other sectors.

While large firms employed over 62 percent of total employees reported by the survey participants, employment at small firms remained very low. Small ICT firms employed only 7 percent of total employees, whereas medium-sized firms accounted for one-third of the reported employment.


Employment patterns were also distinctly different across ICT sub-sectors. The software sub-sector, the fastest growing sub-sector within the industry, employed the majority (55 percent) of employees. Firms with a mixed-business focus in hardware Employment patterns were also distinctly different across ICT sub-sectors. The software sub-sector, the fastest growing sub-sector within the industry, employed the majority (55 percent) of employees. Firms with a mixed-business focus in hardware and software comprised the second biggest sub-sector in terms of employment. Pure hardware employed approximately 16 percent, and the IT-enabled services (ITES) sector employed 4 percent making it the smallest sub-sector.

A majority of firms, over 76 percent of all respondents, indicated having deployed technical workers “onsite,” i.e., at their clients’ premises. This large proportion of technical personnel deployment indicates the collaborative nature of ICT companies with the technology buyers. Lebanese ICT firms are not only supplying technology products to customers, but they are also increasingly involved in the installation, maintenance and ongoing technical assistance with their clients.

Many of these firms retain technical workers that are certified by major technology vendors such as Microsoft, Oracle, Cisco, HP, Sun, Intel, Dell and IBM. These firms also reported providing training to their technical staff through in-house trainers and outside technology vendors. In-house training was less frequently provided, indicating a greater reliance on outside training providers for personnel development. However, from the aggregate information on companies’ frequency of training to their employees, it appears that the overall degree of training could be improved considerably.

Industry Dynamics

Survey participants reported a spectrum of competitive strategies whose importance to firm performance varied by the type of ICT business the firm was engaged in. The survey asked respondents to rank the relative importance of five competitive dimensions: low price, high quality, quick delivery, after-sales service and the ability to customize products and services to meet customer’s needs. While a majority of software firms indicated that high quality and the ability to customize software to clients’ needs were the most critical competitive strengths, low price, high quality and after-sales service were reported to be the most important strategies for hardware firms.

Eighty percent of the participants responded to questions on competition in the software sector. Among these companies, 46 percent ranked “high quality” and 28 percent ranked “ability to customize software to clients” needs as the most important factors, whereas 45 percent ranked “low price” and 18 percent ranked “quick delivery” as the least important factors for competitive success.

In response to the question relating to competitive strategy in the hardware sector, 59 percent of all survey participants ranked the five dimensions in order of importance to success. Thirty-four percent of these firms ranked “low price” and 35 percent ranked “high quality” as the most important factors for success.

In order to compare the aggregate ranking of each dimension across software and hardware sectors, a weighted average index was computed for each dimension. The index estimates were then charted on a web graph with five dimensions, each of which was based on a scale of one to five. Clearly, high quality of products and services is perceived to be the most important success factor by both the software and the hardware subsectors of the Lebanese ICT industry.

At the time of the survey, Lebanese ICT firms were active in the Middle East market and to some degree, in the European market. So as to better understand the industry’s perception of challenges to growth in these two key exports markets, the 2004 ICT Capabilities Survey asked firms to rank, in order of importance, the challenges they faced in relation to market penetration and growth.

While there was a slight difference in aggregate responses by geographic market, respondents agreed that lack of information on export markets, policies and procedures was the most significant challenge to growth.

Lack of awareness on the part of clients regarding Lebanese ICT capabilities ranked a close second in terms of being a top barrier to growth. Over 45 percent of respondents marked the lack of information on export markets, policies and procedures as the most significant challenge for growth in the Middle Eastern market. Nearly 42 percent of the respondents concurred that the same challenge holds as the most significant obstacle to growth in the European market as well. Weighted average indices were computed and charted to compare the relative ranking of different dimensions. As the following chart illustrates, factors relating to the lack of information and client awareness ranked ahead of factors relating to the lack of cost competitiveness, technical skills or management skills. Lack of technical skills was the least significant barrier to growth in both the European and the Middle East markets.
 
INDUSTRY ESTIMATES

Size of the Lebanese ICT Industry

The 146 participating firms, representing about a quarter of the number of ICT firms identified, reported a total of approximately $256 million in 2003 sales. In order to estimate the total size of the industry, the sales figures of responding firms had to be statistically extrapolated under a set of assumptions that reasonably captured the business dynamics of the nonresponding ICT firms in Lebanon. Because of the lack of precise information on the exact grouping of non-responding firms by their size, estimates had to be computed in the form of a range while taking into consideration certain international industry estimates from countries with comparable ICT development as benchmarks for this exercise. Assuming 66 percent of Lebanese ICT firms as small firms, 26 percent as medium firms and eight percent as large firms, the size of the industry was estimated to be $366 million. In order to adjust international standard distribution of firms to meet Lebanese norms, a five percent upward variation in favor of medium and large size firms was introduced. Under this assumption, the size of the industry was estimated to be $389 million. To be more conservative in estimation, one could estimate the size of the Lebanese ICT industry as falling into the range of $360 - $400 million.

Employment in the Lebanese ICT Industry

Employment in the Lebanese ICT industry was estimated using the abovementioned rationale and set of assumptions. The 146 firms that participated in this survey employed a little below 3,000 personnel. Based on this figure, and the assumptions made on the structure of the industry, the Lebanese ICT industry is estimated to have a total employment between 6,500 and 6,750.

APPENDIX

List of Company Directories

List of Directories/ Business References Used to Prepare
the List of Lebanese ICT Companies
No. Name of the Directory
1 5 Index Directory
2 Kompass Directory
3 Lebanese Yellow Pages
4 Termium 2003 Catalog
5 PCA Members List
6 ALSI Members List
7 Business Matching with Syrian
Companies Catalog
8 Berytech web site
9 ME Directory
10 LebWeb
11 The Daleel
 
 
List of Participating Companies
ADS
Cybernet Sarl
Advanced Educational Technology
CyberPCs s.a.r.l.
Aims Sarl - Automated Information Management
Data Consult
Airas Middle East
Data Quest sal
Analyse It S.a.r.l.
Dataflow
Analytica Sal
Digisys Sarl
Applied Technology
Digital 3D (Berytech)
Aptex Sarl
Digital Business Services
Arabia GIS
Digital Corporation
Astrolabe Systems
Digital File Sarl
Automation & computer technologies ACT)
Domtech Computers Plus
Avianco Communication Solutions Sal
E AD Mail
Base 2 Information System Sal
E3 IT Developers sarl
Bekaa Office Automation
Est Easysoft
Best Buy Enterprise
Ebiz Production Sarl
Best Computers
ElementN S.A.L.
BML - Istisharat
Engineering design and Manufacturing (EDM)
Born Interactive
Fine Soft
Bugs
Formatech
Bureau d'Etudes et de Réalisations Informatiques s.a.l.
Freiha Sons Co
Business Machines Corp
Gamma Computers
C.A.T.O. - Centre D'automatisation Des Travaux Sur Ordinateurs
General Technological Services SAL
C.C.T. Trader - Chahine Computers & Training
Graphic Shop
Cable One
G-Tech
Caretek Sal
Heliozid Oce reprographic - Lebanon
CashWind S.A.R.L
I.S.I.S
LTD - Inter Active Services
for International Strategies
Sarl
CCTL - Computer and Communication Technology Company
Lebanon SAL
icons@pc
Clicks Sarl
Info Bay Co. Sarl
Compu Code S.A.R.L.
Infoplus Sarl
Compudata Sarl
Infowill
Compusite
Innovative Technology Sarl - ITEC
Computek & Co.Sarl
Integrated Data Systems
Computer Avenue
Integrated Digital Systems IT
Solutions - IDS
Computer Center
Intellect Computers
Computer Island
International Advanced
Link Co. Sarl
Computime s.a.r.l
International Business
Corporation - IBC
Computrade
International Network
S.B. Sal
Compuworld
IT Media Sarl
COMTEK s.a.l
ITG (Holding) SAL
Cre8mania Sarl
Ladkani Office Solutions
The Information and
Communication Technology
Industry in Lebanon 28
Layout ltd
Sbeity Computer Co
Levant Net Sarl
Secors s.a.r.l.
Logic Systems Computer
Silicon Computer Systems
sarl.
Logicom (Middle East) SAL
Smart Dot
MADAMEK
Smart Tech
Microsoft Lebanon
Soft Flow
Microvision Sarl
Soft Management Sal
Nar Computers
Soft Solutions - Liban
Netalive Sarl
Soft Wave Computer System
Netcom Systems Sarl
Software Design Consulting Group SAL
NetPharma SAL
Software Group
Netways Sarl
Solectron Societe Libanais D'electricite et D'electronique
New Horizons
Star Light Com Net
NIT - New Information Technology sal
Ste. Informatique Libanaise Sil)
Notebook SWAP
Software application & programming
OmniTech Holding
SYNERGY sarl
Open Link
Tech Universe
Oracom
TechnoMania sarl
Orange Clicks
Tele Nahar S.A.R.L.
Pasteur sarl
Tele Projects
Pc - Tek Computers
Telebyte sarl
PC World Sarl
Teletrade Computer Systems
Penta Group sarl
The Guide To Lebanon
ProActive
Trinec sal
Processor sarl
Turnkey Systems sarl
Professional MultiMedia Systems (PMM)
UNI Lebanon s.a.l.
Profiles Management Art and Support Sarl
Unilog
PSI - Produits solutions informatiques sarl
WATSTELECOM s.a.r.l.
Rcam (Reseach & computer aided management)
Webserv sarl
Reset (Berytech)
What's up Lebanon
Rizk Industry & Trade Est. Ltd.
Wonder 8 (Berytech)
Sallisoft
Xpert S.A.R.L.
Saudi Micro-Tech
Zahed Computers & office Equipment
BUSINESS
INFORMATION
Business News
Business Forum
Business Opportunities
Fairs & Exhibitions
Useful Addresses
Currency Exchange Rates
Context
GENERAL
INFORMATION
Geography
Some Marks
To see in Lebanon
FIRST LEBANON
INFORMATION
Media of 1stlebanon
Impact of 1stlebanon
Add your company
Press Book
WEBSITE SELECTION
Flowers delivery Lebanon
Flowers delivery Dubai
Oriental food specialty
Lebanese wine
Real estate agency Beirut
Hotel Hamra-Beirut
Car rental
Beirut-Lebanon
Rent a car lebanon
Reservation for your travel in Lebanon
Association des français de l'étranger
-section Liban
Diamond jewelry Lebanon
Jewelry manufacturer Lebanon
Jewelry watches-Swiss made watches
Diamond Swiss watches
Modern and comtemporary jewelry
Byzantine & Phoenician jewelry
Jewelry creation
Oriental, classical and traditional decoration
Hand made furniture
Construction management Lebanon
Projects development
Shoes manufacturer and distributor Lebanon
Sole agent of Philips & Whirlpool in Lebanon
Web development
Web marketing
Printing press services
Paper products
Insurance company Lebanon
Insurance Lebanon
Rent villas France
Hotels all over Syria
Hotel management company
University Lebanon
Arab Media News